Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Obstetrics and Gynecology deals with the studies of the Female Reproductive system.
A gynecologist-obstetrician is a doctor specialist in the care of women.

An Obstetrician is a specialist doctor to take care of women in the preconception period, pregnancy and during the entire period of pregnancy, labor, childbirth and care after the baby is born.

A Gynecologist is a specialist doctor to take care of the general health of women which includes care of female reproductive organs, breasts and sexual functions, treatment of infections, manage hormonal problems, treat pelvic organ and urinary tract infection.

“Normally, gynecology implies treating women who are not pregnant, while obstetrics deals with women who are pregnant and their unborn children.” But there is no strict compartmentalization; pregnant women, in the early stage of pregnancy may be referred to a gynecologist and to an obstetrician in the later stage of pregnancy.


Various medical and surgical procedures are used by gynecologists and obstetricians, some of which are mentioned below:

  • Laparoscopy:  This procedure involves the diagnosis and removal of cysts and other infections from the fallopian tubes and ovary.
  • Hysterectomy: This procedure involves woman’s uterus removal.
  • Cone biopsy: This procedure involves the removal of sick/unhealthy cells from the cervix to prevent cervical cancer. Gynecologists conduct smear test programs which are designed to detect cervical cancer.


Following are the obstetric procedures performed by obstetricians:

  • External Cephalic Version (ECV): Adjusting the position of the baby in the womb so that it is in correct position for birth.
  • Cervical Sutures: Using tape for strengthening the cervix of a woman so that miscarriage is prevented.
  • Cesarean Delivery: This is becoming increasingly popular these days for various reasons. The procedure involves surgically cutting and taking the baby out of mother’s womb so as to avoid any complication during labor.

Gynecologists and Obstetricians work in close co operation with nurses, midwives, etc. At times they also take the assistance of specialist doctors like Urologist for treating bladder problems; endocrinologists for treating hormonal problems etc.