Pediatrics deals with the care and treatment of diseases of newborn baby, children and even adolescents from birth up to the age of 18 years or so. A physician who specializes in this field is known as pediatrician.   A pediatrician is not only a doctor who treats the ailments of children, but also  offers preventive healthcare to healthy children in physical, mental and emotional well being of the children under his  care.   A pediatrician also tries to reduce the infant and child death rates, control the spread of infectious diseases, promote a healthy life style among children and help them live a disease-free life. His concern is not only the immediate treatment of the ill child, but also long term effect and the quality of life.   Pediatrician concerns with the early detection, prevention and management of the following problems among children:    Infections  Injuries  Organ disease and dysfunctions  Genetic and congenital conditions  Cancers  Developmental delays  Functional disabilities  Behavioral problems  Mental disorders  Social stresses.

Neonatology is a sub specialty of Pediatrics which focuses on new born baby, especially the ill or premature baby (newborn care).  These infants need special medical care because of prematurity, low birth weight, growth retardation or other birth defects. Such infants are normally treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.   Neonatologists treat new born babies with birth defects, breathing disorders, and any other kind of infection. They also ensure that critically ill new born babies receive proper nutrition for quick healing and proper growth. Such specialists also provide care at deliveries involving medical problems in the mother or child that may affect the infant’s health and require medical intervention in the labour room.